Energy Intensity is a metric to measure and target energy improvement work. But it is based on energy consumption per capita, using GDP as the index.
Policymakers often make pledges and promises to reduce energy consumption, and the HKSAR government choose Energy Intensity to measure that performance.
In the EMSD end use data report, with data for 2018, Hong Kong energy use, in absolute terms, increased However the energy intensity improved.
Fast forward to 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic caused global GDP to fall of a cliff, that dramatic decline, give a stable energy demand, means the Energy Intensity increased without any effort. Energy Intensity and GDP are really useless metrics for the energy sector.